Java Example Code using HBase Data Model Operations

The code is based on HBase version 0.92.1

The four primary data model operations are Get, Put, Scan, and Delete. Operations are applied via HTable instances.

First you need to install HBase. For testing, you can install it at a single machine by following this post.

Create a Java project inside Eclips and following libraries into ‘lib’ subdirectory are necessary:

hadoop@ubuntu:~/workspace/HBase$ tree lib
lib
├── commons-configuration-1.8.jar
├── commons-lang-2.6.jar
├── commons-logging-1.1.1.jar
├── hadoop-core-1.0.0.jar
├── hbase-0.92.1.jar
├── log4j-1.2.16.jar
├── slf4j-api-1.5.8.jar
├── slf4j-log4j12-1.5.8.jar
└── zookeeper-3.4.3.jar

Libraries locations

  • copy hbase-0.92.1.jar from HBase installation directory
  • copy rest jar files from “lib” subdirectory of HBase installation directory

Then you need to copy your HBase configuration hbase-site.xmlfile from “conf” subdirectory of HBase installation directory into the Java project directory.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="configuration.xsl"?>
<configuration>
<property>
<name>hbase.rootdir</name>
<value>file:///home/hduser/hbase</value>
</property>
</configuration>

The whole directory looks like:

hadoop@ubuntu:~/workspace/HBase$ tree
.
├── bin
│   └── HBaseConnector.class
├── hbase-site.xml
├── lib
│   ├── commons-configuration-1.8.jar
│   ├── commons-lang-2.6.jar
│   ├── commons-logging-1.1.1.jar
│   ├── hadoop-core-1.0.0.jar
│   ├── hbase-0.92.1.jar
│   ├── log4j-1.2.16.jar
│   ├── slf4j-api-1.5.8.jar
│   ├── slf4j-log4j12-1.5.8.jar
│   └── zookeeper-3.4.3.jar
└── src
└── HBaseConnector.java

Open a terminal

  • start HBase in terminal: bin/start-hbase.sh
  • start HBase shell: bin/hbase shell
  • create a table: create ‘myLittleHBaseTable’, ‘myLittleFamily’

Now you can run the code:

import java.io.IOException;

import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.HBaseConfiguration;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Get;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.HTable;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Put;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Result;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.ResultScanner;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Scan;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Bytes;

public class HBaseConnector {
public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
// You need a configuration object to tell the client where to connect.
// When you create a HBaseConfiguration, it reads in whatever you've set
// into your hbase-site.xml and in hbase-default.xml, as long as these
// can be found on the CLASSPATH
Configuration config = HBaseConfiguration.create();

// This instantiates an HTable object that connects you to the
// "myLittleHBaseTable" table.
HTable table = new HTable(config, "myLittleHBaseTable");

// To add to a row, use Put. A Put constructor takes the name of the row
// you want to insert into as a byte array. In HBase, the Bytes class
// has utility for converting all kinds of java types to byte arrays. In
// the below, we are converting the String "myLittleRow" into a byte
// array to use as a row key for our update. Once you have a Put
// instance, you can adorn it by setting the names of columns you want
// to update on the row, the timestamp to use in your update, etc.
// If no timestamp, the server applies current time to the edits.
Put p = new Put(Bytes.toBytes("myLittleRow"));

// To set the value you'd like to update in the row 'myLittleRow',
// specify the column family, column qualifier, and value of the table
// cell you'd like to update. The column family must already exist
// in your table schema. The qualifier can be anything.
// All must be specified as byte arrays as hbase is all about byte
// arrays. Lets pretend the table 'myLittleHBaseTable' was created
// with a family 'myLittleFamily'.
p.add(Bytes.toBytes("myLittleFamily"), Bytes.toBytes("someQualifier"),
Bytes.toBytes("Some Value"));

// Once you've adorned your Put instance with all the updates you want
// to make, to commit it do the following
// (The HTable#put method takes the Put instance you've been building
// and pushes the changes you made into hbase)
table.put(p);

// Now, to retrieve the data we just wrote. The values that come back
// are Result instances. Generally, a Result is an object that will
// package up the hbase return into the form you find most palatable.
Get g = new Get(Bytes.toBytes("myLittleRow"));
Result r = table.get(g);
byte[] value = r.getValue(Bytes.toBytes("myLittleFamily"), Bytes
.toBytes("someQualifier"));
// If we convert the value bytes, we should get back 'Some Value', the
// value we inserted at this location.
String valueStr = Bytes.toString(value);
System.out.println("GET: " + valueStr);

// Sometimes, you won't know the row you're looking for. In this case,
// you use a Scanner. This will give you cursor-like interface to the
// contents of the table. To set up a Scanner, do like you did above
// making a Put and a Get, create a Scan. Adorn it with column names,
// etc.
Scan s = new Scan();
s.addColumn(Bytes.toBytes("myLittleFamily"), Bytes
.toBytes("someQualifier"));
ResultScanner scanner = table.getScanner(s);
try {
// Scanners return Result instances.
// Now, for the actual iteration. One way is to use a while loop
// like so:
for (Result rr = scanner.next(); rr != null; rr = scanner.next()) {
// print out the row we found and the columns we were looking
// for
System.out.println("Found row: " + rr);
}

// The other approach is to use a foreach loop. Scanners are
// iterable!
// for (Result rr : scanner) {
// System.out.println("Found row: " + rr);
// }
} finally {
// Make sure you close your scanners when you are done!
// Thats why we have it inside a try/finally clause
scanner.close();
}
}
}

Another great Java example from [4]:

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.HBaseConfiguration;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.HColumnDescriptor;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.HTableDescriptor;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.KeyValue;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.MasterNotRunningException;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.ZooKeeperConnectionException;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Delete;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Get;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.HBaseAdmin;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.HTable;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Result;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.ResultScanner;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Scan;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Put;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Bytes;

public class HBaseTest {

	private static Configuration conf = null;
	/**
	 * Initialization
	 */
	static {
		conf = HBaseConfiguration.create();
	}

	/**
	 * Create a table
	 */
	public static void creatTable(String tableName, String[] familys)
			throws Exception {
		HBaseAdmin admin = new HBaseAdmin(conf);
		if (admin.tableExists(tableName)) {
			System.out.println("table already exists!");
		} else {
			HTableDescriptor tableDesc = new HTableDescriptor(tableName);
			for (int i = 0; i < familys.length; i++) {
				tableDesc.addFamily(new HColumnDescriptor(familys[i]));
			}
			admin.createTable(tableDesc);
			System.out.println("create table " + tableName + " ok.");
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Delete a table
	 */
	public static void deleteTable(String tableName) throws Exception {
		try {
			HBaseAdmin admin = new HBaseAdmin(conf);
			admin.disableTable(tableName);
			admin.deleteTable(tableName);
			System.out.println("delete table " + tableName + " ok.");
		} catch (MasterNotRunningException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		} catch (ZooKeeperConnectionException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Put (or insert) a row
	 */
	public static void addRecord(String tableName, String rowKey,
			String family, String qualifier, String value) throws Exception {
		try {
			HTable table = new HTable(conf, tableName);
			Put put = new Put(Bytes.toBytes(rowKey));
			put.add(Bytes.toBytes(family), Bytes.toBytes(qualifier), Bytes
					.toBytes(value));
			table.put(put);
			System.out.println("insert recored " + rowKey + " to table "
					+ tableName + " ok.");
		} catch (IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Delete a row
	 */
	public static void delRecord(String tableName, String rowKey)
			throws IOException {
		HTable table = new HTable(conf, tableName);
		List<Delete> list = new ArrayList<Delete>();
		Delete del = new Delete(rowKey.getBytes());
		list.add(del);
		table.delete(list);
		System.out.println("del recored " + rowKey + " ok.");
	}

	/**
	 * Get a row
	 */
	public static void getOneRecord (String tableName, String rowKey) throws IOException{
        HTable table = new HTable(conf, tableName);
        Get get = new Get(rowKey.getBytes());
        Result rs = table.get(get);
        for(KeyValue kv : rs.raw()){
            System.out.print(new String(kv.getRow()) + " " );
            System.out.print(new String(kv.getFamily()) + ":" );
            System.out.print(new String(kv.getQualifier()) + " " );
            System.out.print(kv.getTimestamp() + " " );
            System.out.println(new String(kv.getValue()));
        }
    }
	/**
	 * Scan (or list) a table
	 */
	public static void getAllRecord (String tableName) {
        try{
             HTable table = new HTable(conf, tableName);
             Scan s = new Scan();
             ResultScanner ss = table.getScanner(s);
             for(Result r:ss){
                 for(KeyValue kv : r.raw()){
                    System.out.print(new String(kv.getRow()) + " ");
                    System.out.print(new String(kv.getFamily()) + ":");
                    System.out.print(new String(kv.getQualifier()) + " ");
                    System.out.print(kv.getTimestamp() + " ");
                    System.out.println(new String(kv.getValue()));
                 }
             }
        } catch (IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

	public static void main(String[] agrs) {
		try {
			String tablename = "scores";
			String[] familys = { "grade", "course" };
			HBaseTest.creatTable(tablename, familys);

			// add record zkb
			HBaseTest.addRecord(tablename, "zkb", "grade", "", "5");
			HBaseTest.addRecord(tablename, "zkb", "course", "", "90");
			HBaseTest.addRecord(tablename, "zkb", "course", "math", "97");
			HBaseTest.addRecord(tablename, "zkb", "course", "art", "87");
			// add record baoniu
			HBaseTest.addRecord(tablename, "baoniu", "grade", "", "4");
			HBaseTest.addRecord(tablename, "baoniu", "course", "math", "89");

			System.out.println("===========get one record========");
			HBaseTest.getOneRecord(tablename, "zkb");

			System.out.println("===========show all record========");
			HBaseTest.getAllRecord(tablename);

			System.out.println("===========del one record========");
			HBaseTest.delRecord(tablename, "baoniu");
			HBaseTest.getAllRecord(tablename);

			System.out.println("===========show all record========");
			HBaseTest.getAllRecord(tablename);
		} catch (Exception e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}
}

Reference:

  1. http://hbase.apache.org/docs/current/api/index.html
  2. http://hbase.apache.org/apidocs/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/client/package-summary.html
  3. http://hbase.apache.org/book/data_model_operations.html
  4. http://lirenjuan.iteye.com/blog/1470645
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9 Comments

  1. Sheriffo
    Posted June 25, 2012 at 12:59 pm | Permalink | Reply

    Great examples and good for beginners. Do you have any extensive ideas joins in HBase with MapReduce?

  2. telegenic
    Posted October 17, 2012 at 6:43 pm | Permalink | Reply

    You will also have to copy protobuf-java-xxx.jar file from hbase lib folder into your project.

    • Perrunchin
      Posted June 10, 2013 at 8:49 am | Permalink | Reply

      Thank you! For everyone out there you must add this library also. I tried just the ones suggested initially and I got compilation errors. After adding this one it worked perfectly.

  3. David
    Posted November 30, 2012 at 7:26 pm | Permalink | Reply

    Have anyone tried to compile and run this code with ant on linux?

  4. kumar
    Posted April 23, 2013 at 7:23 am | Permalink | Reply

    fantastic post

  5. Dasha
    Posted May 17, 2013 at 2:19 pm | Permalink | Reply

    Thanks, very helpful

  6. Posted July 11, 2013 at 2:26 am | Permalink | Reply

    Thanks..v helpful.. !!

  7. Debajit
    Posted July 22, 2013 at 3:08 pm | Permalink | Reply

    Nice example to kickstart HBase

  8. Sudhakar
    Posted March 4, 2014 at 4:10 pm | Permalink | Reply

    Very detailed. Thaks.

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