Practice on Fraud

Tools to detect fraud include geolocation, velocity pattern analysis, OFAC list lookups, ‘black-list’ lookups, delivery address verification, computer finger printing technology, identity morphing detection, and basic AVS checks. [1]


Velocity of change counts the number of changes between data elements on new transactions with previous ones as a means of identifying suspicious behavior. [2]

Geo IP

Service provider[4]:

  • geoPlugin
  • IP2Location
  • MaxMind
  • Quova
  • Digital Envoy
  • NetGeo
  • Cyscape CountryHawk
  • Digital element
  • IPligence

Device Finger Printing

Device Identification is a technique used to establish a “fingerprint” of a user’s computer or other web access device in order to track their activity and determine linkages between other devices.[3]


OFAC (Office of Foreign Assets Control) and AML (Anti Money Laundering) etc. are common regulation for online payment.

Black list



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